Modern architecture, or modernist architecture, was an architectural moment or architectural style based upon new and innovative technologies of construction, particularly the use of glass, steel, and reinforced concrete, the idea that form should follow function and embrace minimalism and a rejection of ornament. It emerged in the first half of the 20th century and became dominant when it was gradually replaced as the principal style for institutional and corporate buildings by postmodern architecture.
Main features of modern architecture.
Low, horizontal massing, flat roofs, emphasis on horizontal planes, and broad roof overhangs: Modern homes tend to be on generous sites, and thus many, but not all, have to have meandering one-story plans. Many examples hug the ground and appear of the site, not in contrast to it.
Most of the People of India are living in metro cities have realized with time the important role of architects in creating smart and sustainable cities. As they are increasingly facing problems related to basic town planning, infrastructure, and sanitation they are turning towards the architecture industry for solutions to all these problems.
On the other hand, architects to are trying to keep up with the need of the hour i.e sustainable cities as well as fulfilling the needs and demands of their clients. Some of the top architecture firms in India are actively supporting the cause and creating platforms to promote better architecture. This blog is all about modern Indian Architecture and its evolution with time.
Basics of Modern Indian Architecture.
Modern Indian architecture came around after 1947 when India got independence from the Britishers. Although, post-independence too there was a phase when there was not much progression in the field of architecture. It all began when the world-famous architect Le Corbusier designed the city of Chandigarh. After that, the Indian architects were inspired by his work and began implementing similar ideas. This is how modern Indian architecture was revolutionized. However, modern Indian architecture doesn’t neglect traditional Indian architecture. There are still glimpses of traditional characteristics in modern Indian architecture.
One of the best examples of modern architecture retaining its traditional roots is the Lotus temple in New Delhi. The architect Fariborz Sahba took the traditional lotus symbol and gave it a modern touch. The mix of modern elements gives the temple a very peaceful and elegant form.
Now, that modern Indian architecture is defined and explained, let’s have a look at its changing culture and the challenges faced by this profession.
The Changes In Designs.
An increasing population means there is a greater requirement of housing spaces too. Such higher demand has created huge architectural opportunities in India. Not only that but this is one of the major reasons for the number of foreign architectural firms rapidly growing in India. Now that the cities lack the basic infrastructure, the need to design and bring about a difference is huge. Also, many Indian architects who got their architectural qualifications overseas are coming back to become a part of this shift that the country is going through.
The effects of globalization can be seen in the field of architecture too. As many foreign architectural firms began working in India, with them came the concept of glass and designer-shaped buildings. That trend was prevalent for quite some time but the Indian architects soon decided to go local. Modern Indian architecture is now more inclined towards using natural and alternative materials like bamboo, wood, stone, brick, mud, clay, etc. The work of emerging architects in India can be grouped under the category of ‘contemporary Indian sensibility. It means the roots of Indian architecture are integrated with the contemporary vocabulary.
New Designed Buildings.
As discussed earlier, all of the major cities of India are facing infrastructure and other related issues. On the contrary, smaller cities are proving to be better examples of town planning. Many architects have realized that thinking about their projects is not going to help. Instead of thinking about the city as a whole will help in sustainable development.
The impact of architecture on the sociology cultural imprint of a city is now known and so is the social responsibility of an architect. More and more groups of architects have realized their responsibility toward society and are taking active measures to conserve heritage structures. It does not end at this. The architects are also bringing forward the immense talent of craftspeople in India and helping in their upliftment. Apart from the architects, nonprofit organizations are also doing their part. They are not only presenting their views on the infrastructure-related problems but are also working on practical solutions to resolve that.
Architects Are Facing The Challenges. The major challenge that architecture is facing in India today is the gradually reducing importance of culture and heritage. Too much exposure to foreign countries and their architecture can be held responsible for the receding interest in Indian heritage.
Overload of information, changing lifestyles, dependence on patrons, and well-traveled clients — everything has affected the architecture.
The second challenge faced by this profession is the level of architectural education being provided. It is constantly deteriorating with time. Yes, there are a lot of well-known academics in India but a sudden increase in the number of architecture schools and easy licensing has led to an imbalance. It can be seen to such an extent that some of the smaller firms are providing training to the students themselves.
Different styles of architecture in India.
Temple architecture in India developed in almost all the regions during ancient India. Across the country distinct architectural styles in temple construction can be seen, this differentiation is mainly caused due to geographical, climatic, racial, ethnic, linguistic, and historical diversities. Ancient Indian temples are classified into three broad categories, those are Nagara or the Northern style, Vesara or Mixed style, and Dravida or the Southern style. Apart from the broad classification, Kerala, Bengal, and the Himalayan areas also display their regional styles in temple architecture which are equally unique.
The Mughal architectural style is a unique style of Islamic, Persian, and Indian styles. Mughal architecture flourished largely in the Indian subcontinent. In the era of the Mughals, India was ruled by the Mughals and different rulers built some of the structures in the country. Humayun’s Tomb, Akbar’s Tomb, Fatehpur Sikri, Red Fort at Delhi, Jama Masjid Delhi, and the Taj Mahal at Agra is examples of structures.
The Kaḷinga architecture is a style that started being built in the ancient Kalinga region. This form of style can be seen in the eastern Indian state of Odisha and also in northern parts of Andhra Pradesh. Kalinga’s architectural style consists of three different types of temples, and they are Rekha Deula, Khakhara Deula, and Pidha Deula. These temples are the finest structures of architecture in India.
Vesara style is evolved in Karnataka state during the medieval centuries. This style combines both the Dravida and the Nagara architectural styles. In this type of style, the heights of the individual tiers are reduced without affecting their actual numbers, this results in the reduction of the overall height of the temple architecture. Some temples are of this style contain semi-circular structures of the Buddhist Chaityas.
The cave style of architecture in India has started in the third century BC. These types of structures were used by the Jain monks and the Buddhists typically as a place of residence and worship. There are some examples of this type of style structure are Chaityas and Viharas of Buddhists. This type of style connects with three different religions, Hinduism, Buddhism, and Jainism.
Rock Cut Architecture.
The Rock-cut structures in India show us the most impressive piece of ancient Indian art specimen. Rock-cut architecture is the art of creating a structure by carving it out of solid natural rock. Most of the rock-cut structures in our country were related to different religious communities. India has more than 1,550 known rock-cut structures and many of these structures contain artworks. Stone carvings are the main aspects of these types of styles.
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